Yes, quantum computing is real and a rapidly developing field of study. It harnesses the principles of quantum mechanics to perform computations that surpass the capabilities of classical computers, offering the potential for groundbreaking advancements in various domains.

### Is Quantum Computing for Real?

Quantum computing is a field of computer science that harnesses the principles of quantum mechanics to solve complex problems that traditional computers cannot handle. Quantum mechanics deals with the properties and interactions of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels. The aim of quantum computing is to leverage these principles to enhance the processing power of computers, allowing them to handle massive amounts of data at incredible speeds. While the use cases for quantum computing are still largely experimental and hypothetical at this stage, forecasts suggest that it has the potential to revolutionize various industries and generate significant economic value.

One of the main advantages of quantum computing is its ability to perform calculations much faster than even the most powerful supercomputers today. A task that would take a traditional supercomputer 10,000 years to complete could potentially be done by a quantum computer in just four minutes. Quantum computers can also tackle more complex problems and run highly sophisticated simulations. An Australian company has developed software that claims to enhance the performance of quantum computing, further expanding its capabilities.

However, a major drawback of quantum computers is their susceptibility to errors. Efforts are underway to build computers that can identify and correct their own mistakes, but quantum errors are likely to persist. Nevertheless, recent breakthroughs in error correction have been achieved, bringing large-scale quantum computers closer to reality. It’s worth noting that classical computers will still be necessary even with highly accurate quantum computers. The fundamental difference lies in how data is represented: classical computers use binary digits (0s and 1s), while quantum computers use qubits that can represent multiple states simultaneously.

Despite the challenges, the pace of breakthroughs in quantum computing is accelerating, attracting more organizations and startups to invest in the technology. Major tech companies like Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, and Alibaba have already introduced commercial quantum computing offerings. According to McKinsey, four industries that could benefit from early quantum computing applications are pharmaceuticals, chemicals, automotive, and finance. However, more research and investment are needed to determine which use cases are more viable.

In the pharmaceutical industry, quantum computing has the potential to transform the research and development of molecular structures, speeding up drug discovery and reducing reliance on trial and error. This could lead to faster availability of life-saving drugs and improvements in production, logistics, and supply chains. The estimated revenue impact of using quantum computing in the pharmaceutical industry ranges from $15 billion to $75 billion, depending on the percentage increase in efficiency.

The chemical industry can leverage quantum computing for R&D and production to enhance catalysts and improve energy efficiency in existing processes. By developing innovative catalysts, companies can reduce costs and explore more sustainable feedstock options. A 5% to 10% increase in production efficiency could result in $20 billion to $40 billion in additional revenue.

In the automotive industry, quantum computing can optimize various aspects of R&D, product design, manufacturing, and supply chain management. By using the technology to reduce costs and improve productivity, automotive companies can generate billions in additional revenue. A mere 2% productivity gain could translate to $10 billion to $25 billion in increased revenue in a sector that spends $500 billion annually on manufacturing.

While the finance industry is still exploring the theoretical possibilities, quantum computing could have applications in portfolio and risk management. It could help financial institutions optimize loan portfolios, leading to improved offerings, reduced interest rates, and better capital utilization. Given that the global lending market stands at $6.9 trillion, quantum optimization could have a significant impact.

In conclusion, quantum computing is expected to be used alongside conventional high-performance computing until around 2030, with the potential for quantum-inspired algorithms to benefit traditional computers. Private companies and public institutions will continue to improve quantum hardware and enable more complex use cases. The path to commercialization will depend on factors such as funding, accessibility, standardization, industry collaboration, talent availability, and digital infrastructure. With ongoing advancements, quantum computing is moving closer to becoming a reality with transformative potential.

Source: https://www.techopedia.com/is-quantum-computing-for-real/2/34913

### Are Quantum Computers Real?

Quantum computing is a complex and evolving field that sparks both excitement and skepticism. While functional quantum computers do exist, they are far from fully operational models at this time. To understand the reality of quantum computing, it’s important to explore questions such as its existence, the number of quantum computers available, and who possesses them.

Quantum computing is indeed a conceptual reality. The basic premise and core principles of how it works have been explained in various articles, including one titled What Is Quantum Computing. However, when considering what quantum computers can theoretically achieve, the existing elemental models fall short of being fully working representations.

According to experts like Mike Loukides from O’Reilly Media, accomplishing real work with quantum computers would require a significant increase in logical qubits, the quantum mechanical counterparts of traditional bits. It is estimated that 1,000 logical qubits, each consisting of approximately 1,000 physical qubits, would be needed for practical applications. While IBM, a leader in quantum computing, surpassed the 100-qubit barrier with a 127-qubit quantum processor in late 2021, it is still far from the estimated 1,000,000 qubits necessary for a fully functioning quantum computer.

When it comes to the number of quantum computers, it is crucial to differentiate between quantum gates and quantum annealing. Quantum annealing is used to find efficiencies and optimization in fixed parameter scenarios. It excels at solving problems like the traveling salesman dilemma, where a specific solution is sought within known limits. On the other hand, quantum gate technology is designed to answer questions without predefined solutions, making it suitable for more open-ended problems. Therefore, counting all quantum gate computers requires a broader definition, including laboratory computers that exist within a single drop of acid.

Several organizations have made progress in building quantum computers. Innovators in gate model quantum computing include IBM, Google, Honeywell, Intel, and other top companies. D-Wave specializes in quantum annealing computers, and various universities have constructed different types of qubit circuits for diverse applications. Defining what constitutes a quantum computer and determining the number and ownership of such computers is challenging due to the highly theoretical nature of this field. Disagreements among experts on quantum computing assertions further contribute to the complexity.

While quantum computing offers immense potential in specialized fields, there is disagreement about whether it will replace classical computers. The logistical and cost challenges of operating quantum computers, which require extremely low temperatures, are likely to limit their widespread adoption by average users. Instead, a more realistic scenario is that quantum computers will complement classical computers, forming a third arm of computing power. Classical desktops will continue to be used in everyday life, classical supercomputers will serve broader applications, and quantum computers will become more accessible for specialized research in fields like pharmacology and meteorology.

The advantages of quantum technology are substantial. To illustrate this, let’s compare the performance of humans to supercomputers. The world’s fastest supercomputer in 2018, called Summit, could perform 200 quadrillion calculations per second. If every person on Earth performed one calculation per second, it would take 305 days to match Summit’s capability. Quantum computing has the potential to outperform even supercomputers by leveraging the power of qubits, which operate based on principles like superposition and quantum entanglement. Just as supercomputers transformed the capabilities of desktop PCs through parallel processing, quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize what supercomputers can achieve, surpassing the limitations of classical computing.

In summary, while quantum computers are real, they are not fully operational at this stage. The number of existing quantum computers is difficult to define precisely due to varying definitions and the theoretical nature of this field. Companies like IBM, Google, Honeywell, Intel, and universities have made progress in building quantum computers. Quantum computing offers tremendous potential in specialized fields, but it is uncertain whether it will replace classical computers. Instead, it is more likely to become a complementary technology, with quantum computers supporting specialized research and applications. The advantages of quantum technology lie in its ability to perform complex calculations at a level far beyond the capabilities of classical supercomputers, promising significant advancements in various scientific disciplines.

Source: https://blog.purestorage.com/purely-informational/are-quantum-computers-real/

### What Is Quantum Computing, Is It Real, and How Does It Change Things?

In our modern day, computers have advanced significantly, but the concept of quantum computing promises even greater possibilities. Quantum computing is a field of science that utilizes the laws of the universe to achieve extraordinary goals and reshape our world.

The origins of quantum computing can be traced back to the 1980s when physicist Paul Benioff introduced a quantum computing model based on the Turing machine. Since then, researchers like Isaac Chuang and Neil Gershenfeld have contributed to the theory and application of quantum computing.

Quantum computing, in its simplest form, relies on the principles of quantum mechanics to perform computations. While it was once a theoretical concept, quantum computers are now being developed and tested.

Quantum computing is a complex and evolving field, with various prototype models currently under development. Google’s quantum computer, Sycamore, is one example of these prototypes. In 2019, Google announced that Sycamore had solved a calculation in minutes that would have taken a supercomputer 10,000 years. The question arises: how do quantum computers achieve such remarkable feats?

The fundamental building block of traditional computers is the bit, which can only represent two states: zero or one. In contrast, quantum computers use quantum bits, or qubits, as their basic units. Qubits can store and process information in quantum states and can take various forms, such as photons or trapped ions.

What sets qubits apart is their ability to exist in multiple states simultaneously. They can represent zero, one, or any value in between simultaneously. This property allows quantum computers to consider multiple possibilities simultaneously and perform calculations before the state of an object becomes measurable. Consequently, quantum computers can solve complex problems much faster than traditional computers.

The most significant advantage of quantum computers is their unparalleled speed in performing calculations. They have the potential to outperform traditional computers in terms of computing speed and can handle highly complex problems and simulations. This level of capability is often referred to as quantum supremacy.

However, quantum computers also face several challenges that need to be addressed. One major hurdle is the requirement for extreme environments to operate. Quantum computers typically need to be kept at temperatures around

Source: https://www.makeuseof.com/what-is-quantum-computing-how-does-it-change-things/

### Quantum computing is starting to look very real – Telecoms.com

Quantum computing has been a topic of discussion for some time, often seen as a futuristic concept rather than a practical reality. However, recent developments suggest that quantum computing is becoming more tangible and its potential benefits and risks are starting to emerge.

Quantum computing is based on the principles of quantum mechanics, which allow for complex problem-solving that traditional computers struggle with. Quantum chips, housed in extremely cold environments, surpass the processing power of even the most powerful supercomputers. Unlike traditional computers that use bits to represent information as either 1 or 0, quantum chips use qubits, which can exist in a superposition of both states simultaneously. This ability to exist in multiple states simultaneously enables quantum computers to create multidimensional computational spaces and represent complex problems in new ways.

The potential applications of quantum computing are vast and varied. It could revolutionize fields such as biological engineering, financial services, and artificial intelligence. Quantum computers have the potential to solve highly complex mathematical problems, optimize networks, enhance AI and machine learning capabilities, and derive value from large amounts of customer data.

However, along with these benefits come potential risks. One significant concern is the ability of quantum-powered systems to break through standard security protections and encryption. To address this, a task force, including IBM and Vodafone, has been established to explore the implications of quantum computing on network security. While the precise threats are not yet fully understood, the industry recognizes the need to prepare for the potential impact on network security and data protection.

Luke Ibbetson of Vodafone and Lory Thorpe of IBM shed light on the pros and cons of quantum computing. Ibbetson emphasizes the need to identify the right problems to apply quantum computing capabilities to, while also ensuring the security of networks and customer data. Thorpe explains that quantum computing represents a paradigm shift in computing capabilities and envisions a future where quantum computing is accessible through cloud services rather than individual devices.

The potential negative consequences of quantum computing in the wrong hands are significant. Quantum-level capabilities could be used to harvest data, compromise networks, and undermine the integrity of digital signatures and cryptography. The widespread use of cryptography in various aspects of daily life makes the implications of quantum attacks far-reaching. The timeline for when quantum computers will reach the scale necessary to break current encryption methods remains uncertain. However, the industry recognizes the urgency of developing quantum-safe encryption algorithms and transitioning to more secure systems.

While quantum computing is still in the experimental phase, it is becoming increasingly accessible to businesses as a service. IBM has made efforts to raise awareness and democratize quantum computing by making its capabilities available to different industries. The maturity of quantum computing is an ongoing discussion, and while fault-tolerant systems are still some distance away, the increasing availability of stable qubits suggests that practical quantum computing is on the horizon.

In conclusion, quantum computing is transitioning from a theoretical concept to a practical technology with the potential to revolutionize various industries. While its benefits are promising, the industry must also address the security risks associated with quantum-powered systems. By preparing for the implications of quantum computing and developing quantum-safe encryption methods, the industry can navigate the transition and harness the full potential of this emerging technology.

Source: https://telecoms.com/520995/quantum-computing-is-starting-to-look-very-real/

### Quantum Computing is Real. It Will Simulate the Subatomic World

Scientists are on the brink of using quantum computers for designing new drugs and biomaterials, particularly those made of proteins and peptides. Unlike traditional digital computers that process data as discrete 0s and 1s, quantum computers have bits known as qubits, which can represent both 0 and 1 simultaneously due to their quantum mechanical properties such as superposition and entanglement. This enables quantum computers to perform calculations with multiple complex variables simultaneously, leading to exponential power and the ability to represent an enormous number of states.

Quantum computers have been a concept for several decades, but only now are they becoming a reality. Their development and control have been challenging due to the need to maintain specific conditions for quantum weirdness. Qubits must be kept extremely cold and shielded from electromagnetic interference. However, qubits are fragile and prone to errors, necessitating error-correcting algorithms that consume a significant portion of the machine’s processing power.

Despite these challenges, even a quantum computer with fewer than 100 stable qubits would achieve quantum supremacy. This means it could solve problems in seconds that would take classical computers thousands of years to solve. While quantum computers may not replace classical digital computers entirely, they will be accessible through cloud-computing providers like IBM, Google, and Microsoft, as well as startups.

The field of medicine and biomedical research stands to benefit significantly from quantum computers. They can be used to design drugs and biomaterials with precise properties by modeling the vast number of permutations in complex systems. Peptides and proteins, which play essential roles in cellular operations, could be designed to target specific pathogens or trigger beneficial effects. Quantum computers also offer a new way to simulate the complexity inherent in larger biological systems, such as understanding the intricate interactions involved in diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s.

As quantum machines become more powerful and accessible, numerous other applications will emerge. For instance, they could simulate how different prescription drugs interact at the molecular level or study the effects of using different isotopes in biological enzymes. These simulations require accurate modeling of events occurring at the atomic level, which digital computers struggle to achieve but can be handled by quantum computers.

The milestones in the development of quantum computing are noteworthy. Paul Benioff proposed the feasibility of a computer that utilizes quantum effects for calculations, followed by Richard Feynman’s demonstration of simulating quantum processes accurately. David Deutsch showed that quantum computers could be universal, capable of simulating any physical process. Peter Shor demonstrated a quantum algorithm for quickly determining prime factors, which has implications for cryptography. Lov Grover developed an algorithm for fast database searching using a quantum computer. Various research groups achieved basic quantum calculations by manipulating qubits made from molecules. D-Wave Systems introduced the first commercial quantum computer, albeit limited to specific problems. John Preskill defined quantum supremacy, and Google researchers claimed to have achieved it by solving a problem in minutes that would take classical computers thousands of years.

In conclusion, quantum computing holds tremendous potential in various fields, with medicine and biomedical research being particularly promising. As quantum machines advance, their ability to model complex systems and solve intricate problems will revolutionize scientific research and technological advancements.

Source: https://www.flagshippioneering.com/stories/quantum-computing-is-real-its-most-important-application-will-be-simulating-the-subatomic-world

### Explained: What is quantum computing and how will it change the world?

Quantum computing is an emerging field that has the potential to bring about significant changes in the world. These hyper-powerful machines, based on the principles of quantum mechanics, have the ability to revolutionize various industries and solve complex problems. Companies like IBM, Google, Microsoft, and Amazon are heavily investing in quantum technology, recognizing its potential.

To understand how quantum computers work, it’s important to first grasp the difference between classical and quantum computing. Classical computers operate on the principle of binary code, using bits (0s and 1s) to encode and process information. In contrast, quantum computers use quantum bits, or qubits, which can be subatomic particles like photons or electrons. Unlike bits, qubits can exist in a superposition, where they can represent both 0 and 1 simultaneously.

Superposition allows quantum computers to encode data in an exponentially larger number of states, making them much more powerful than classical computers. Another crucial property of quantum computing is entanglement, which describes the correlation between entangled qubits regardless of their distance. Entanglement enhances the connectivity between qubits and increases the computational power of quantum systems.

The potential applications of quantum computing are vast. One area where it could have a significant impact is in simulating the physical world. Quantum computers can simulate atoms and molecules more effectively, aiding in the design of new materials with tailored properties. This has implications for energy storage, food production, and climate change mitigation. By designing better materials, quantum computers can help solve these global challenges.

However, the development of quantum computers also raises concerns. One major issue is the potential to break encryption protocols that are fundamental to internet security. Quantum computers could possess the computational power to crack the encryption algorithms currently in use. To address this, organizations and state actors need to adopt quantum-safe algorithms that are resistant to quantum attacks. While preparations are being made, there is still the risk that data transmitted today could be decrypted in the future once quantum computers become more powerful.

Despite these risks, the potential benefits of quantum computing outweigh the challenges. The speed and computational capabilities of quantum computers can revolutionize fields like medicine and chemistry, enabling faster discovery of chemical reactions and advancing drug development. Although breaking encryption is a side effect of quantum computing, it can be addressed by developing new security measures.

In conclusion, quantum computing holds tremendous promise for transforming various industries and tackling complex global problems. With ongoing research and development, quantum computers have the potential to drive significant advancements and reshape the world as we know it.

Source: https://www.euronews.com/next/2023/04/12/what-is-quantum-computing-and-what-does-a-quantum-computer-do

### How Close Are We—Really—to Building a Quantum Computer?

The development of a functional quantum computer, capable of revolutionizing various fields of science and technology, is a race that has attracted the attention of major tech companies such as IBM, Microsoft, Google, and Intel. Although the realization of such a machine is likely more than a decade away, these companies continuously celebrate incremental achievements in the field. While increasing the number of quantum bits, or qubits, on a processor chip is a common milestone, the journey toward quantum computing encompasses more than just manipulating subatomic particles.

A qubit, the basic unit of information in quantum computing, can represent both 0 and 1 simultaneously—a phenomenon known as superposition. This property enables qubits to perform multiple calculations simultaneously, significantly enhancing computational speed and capacity. However, not all qubits are equal, and there are different types with varying characteristics. For example, the state of an electron determines whether a bit is 0 or 1 in a spin qubit. Despite their potential, all qubits are extremely fragile and require very low temperatures, around 20 millikelvins, to maintain stability.

Building a quantum computer involves more than just the processor. These systems require new algorithms, software, interconnects, and other yet-to-be-invented technologies tailored to harness the immense processing power and enable data sharing or storage. The complexity involved is a significant obstacle to progress. Intel, for instance, introduced a 49-qubit processor named Tangle Lake and developed a virtual-testing environment for quantum computing software. However, to truly grasp quantum computer software development, hundreds or even thousands of qubits must be simulated.

In an interview with Scientific American, the director of quantum hardware at Intel Labs, Jim Clarke, sheds light on the different approaches to building a quantum computer and the challenges associated with the technology. He explains that conventional computing relies on binary states, where a transistor is either up or down. In contrast, a quantum computer exploits the superposition of qubits, representing both 0 and 1 simultaneously until the qubit settles into a resting state. This enables quantum computers to explore an exponentially larger state space than classical computers. The analogy of spinning coins illustrates this concept, where multiple coins spinning in the air represent an exponential number of states. The fragility of qubits stems from their susceptibility to disturbances such as noise, temperature changes, or vibrations, which can disrupt their operation and cause data loss. To address this, qubits often require extremely low temperatures to remain stable.

Various types of qubits exist, each with its own way of manipulation and entanglement—the process of qubits interacting to perform complex calculations. Superconducting qubits, like Intel’s Tangle Lake processor, require extreme cooling. Another approach involves trapped ions held in place by laser beams. Intel is exploring a third type, called silicon spin qubits, which resemble conventional silicon transistors but operate using a single electron. While superconducting qubits are more mature technologically, silicon spin qubits offer scalability and commercialization potential.

The path toward quantum computing involves the development of quantum chips, along with simulators running on supercomputers. The simulations serve as a foundation for designing architectures, compilers, and algorithms. However, the practicality of software and applications cannot be determined until physical systems with several hundred to a thousand qubits are available. There are two avenues for scaling quantum computers: increasing the number of qubits, which presents physical space limitations for large-scale systems, or reducing the size of the integrated circuit. Intel is exploring the latter option with silicon spin qubits, as they are significantly smaller than superconducting qubits.

Regarding the impact of quantum computing, Clarke mentions that the initial quantum algorithms proposed focus on security, chemistry, and materials modeling—problems that are challenging for classical computers. However, research groups and startups are also investigating machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) using quantum computers. While AI development may be influenced more by conventional chips optimized for AI algorithms, quantum computing could still play a role in AI advancements.

As for the timeline of achieving working quantum computers that solve real-world problems, Clarke emphasizes that major advancements in computing technology historically took time. The first transistor was introduced in 1947, followed by the first integrated circuit in 1958, and Intel’s first microprocessor in 1971. Each milestone was more than a decade apart. While some may claim quantum computers are just a few years away, Clarke argues that they underestimate the complexity of the technology. He suggests that if, in 10 years, a quantum computer with a few thousand qubits becomes a reality, it would have a transformative effect similar to the advent of the first microprocessor.

Source: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-close-are-we-really-to-building-a-quantum-computer/

### What is Quantum Computing? | IBM

Quantum computing is an advanced field that explores the potential of quantum mechanical principles to perform computations. Unlike classical computers that use bits to process information, quantum computers employ qubits (short for quantum bits) to run complex quantum algorithms. These quantum processors are elegant and compact, requiring less energy and physical space compared to supercomputers. An IBM Quantum processor, for instance, is as small as a laptop wafer, while a complete quantum hardware system is approximately the size of a car, predominantly consisting of cooling systems to maintain the ultra-cold operational temperature necessary for its superconducting processor.

To achieve the extremely low temperatures required, quantum processors utilize super-cooled superfluids, which act as superconductors. At these frigid temperatures, specific materials in the processors exhibit a significant quantum mechanical effect: electrons can move through them without resistance, making them superconductors. As electrons pass through these superconductors, they form pairs known as Cooper pairs. These pairs have the ability to carry a charge across barriers, such as insulators, using quantum tunneling. In the context of quantum computing, two superconductors placed on either side of an insulator form a Josephson junction, which serves as a crucial component for control in quantum computers.

IBM’s quantum computers utilize Josephson junctions as superconducting qubits. By directing microwave photons at these qubits, researchers can control their behavior, enabling them to store, modify, and retrieve individual units of quantum information. While a single qubit may not be particularly useful, it possesses an intriguing property called superposition. This means that a qubit can exist in a state of superposition, which represents a combination of all possible configurations of the qubit’s quantum information. When groups of qubits are in superposition, they can collectively create complex and multidimensional computational spaces, providing new representations for tackling intricate problems.

Another remarkable aspect of quantum computing is entanglement. Entanglement is a quantum mechanical phenomenon that links the behavior of two distinct entities. When two qubits are entangled, any changes made to one qubit instantaneously affect the other, regardless of the distance between them. Quantum algorithms exploit this entangled relationship between qubits to find solutions to intricate problems that would be considerably challenging for classical computers.

In summary, quantum computing utilizes qubits, which operate based on the principles of superconductivity, quantum tunneling, and quantum entanglement. By employing superconducting qubits, such as those formed by Josephson junctions, and leveraging the effects of superposition and entanglement, quantum computers have the potential to revolutionize computational capabilities and solve complex problems that are beyond the reach of classical computers.

Source: https://www.ibm.com/topics/quantum-computing

### Quantum computing has a hype problem

Quantum computing has become a buzzword, generating a tremendous amount of hype and excitement. Tech giants like Alphabet, Amazon, and Microsoft are heavily investing in quantum computing research and development, while numerous startups with high valuations have emerged. However, despite being an advocate for quantum computing himself, Sankar Das Sarma, a renowned quantum computing researcher, expresses concern about the current state of hype surrounding the field.

There are established applications for quantum computers, such as Peter Shor’s theoretical demonstration in 1994 that a quantum computer can exponentially solve the problem of finding prime factors of large numbers. This breakthrough attracted significant research funding due to its potential impact on breaking RSA-based cryptography. However, the challenge lies in actually building a quantum computer capable of achieving this feat.

Quantum-error correction, a concept pioneered by Shor and others, is crucial for creating a quantum computer capable of solving complex problems. It compensates for the rapid disappearance of quantum states, known as decoherence, caused by environmental noise. While scientists initially believed quantum-error correction would be easy to implement, it has proven to be extremely difficult in practice.

The most advanced quantum computers today only have dozens of decohering qubits. To crack RSA codes, billions of qubits would be required, with only a fraction dedicated to computation, while the rest would be needed for error correction. Current qubit systems are significant scientific achievements but do not bring us any closer to a practical quantum computer that can solve real-world problems.

Das Sarma draws an analogy between the present state of quantum computing and the early development of smartphones using vacuum tubes. While a few vacuum tubes could be combined to demonstrate principles, it took decades of engineering progress to create integrated circuits and CPUs, leading to the modern smartphone. Similarly, quantum computing is facing major engineering challenges that need to be overcome for practical applications to emerge.

There are ideas, including topological quantum computing, that could potentially bypass quantum-error correction and use more stable qubits. However, developing topological quantum-computing hardware remains a significant challenge, and it is uncertain whether quantum-error correction, topological quantum computing, or a hybrid approach will ultimately succeed.

The term NISQ (noisy intermediate scale quantum) has emerged to describe small collections of noisy qubits that could potentially outperform classical computers in certain tasks. While NISQ holds promise for fundamental research, its commercialization potential remains unclear. Claims about NISQ’s applications in optimization and AI training lack concrete evidence, and experts in those fields are equally skeptical.

Proposals to use small-scale quantum computers for drug design or finance also face skepticism. Quantum chemistry is just a small part of the drug-design process, and there is no compelling evidence that quantum computers can significantly optimize algorithmic trading or risk evaluation.

While a fully realized quantum computer could have unimaginable applications, similar to how transistors led to smartphones and laptops, predicting its arrival and commercial profitability is challenging. Quantum mechanics, with its weird and counterintuitive phenomena like entanglement and superposition, does not guarantee immediate revenue and profit.

Drawing an analogy to the development of aviation, Das Sarma highlights that predicting the future of technology is impossible. It took more than 60 years for the aviation industry to progress from the Wright brothers to jumbo jets, and placing quantum computing on a timeline is equally uncertain. The current state of quantum computing might be comparable to the early stages of aviation, or it could be even further behind. The exact timeline remains unknown.

In conclusion, while quantum computing holds immense potential, there is a need to temper the hype surrounding it. Significant engineering challenges and uncertainties exist in building practical quantum computers that can solve real-world problems. While the field continues to evolve, predicting the future of quantum computing and its commercial applications remains elusive.

Source: https://www.technologyreview.com/2022/03/28/1048355/quantum-computing-has-a-hype-problem/

### Quantum computers may finally have their first real practical use

Quantum computers, which have long been heralded as the future of computing, may finally have their first real practical use. Current methods of generating random numbers for secure communications have inherent flaws, but quantum computers have the potential to produce truly random numbers that cannot be faked. This breakthrough could have significant implications for fields such as secure communications and cryptocurrency networks like Ethereum.

The process of generating random numbers using quantum computers can be executed on the best quantum systems available today. Researchers involved in this study believe that this task would be the first truly practical application that cannot be achieved without a quantum machine. By leveraging the inherent randomness of quantum phenomena, quantum computers can generate random numbers that are fundamentally unpredictable and impossible to reproduce.

Random numbers play a crucial role in the field of cybersecurity. They are extensively used in various applications, including encryption algorithms and cryptographic protocols, to ensure the security and privacy of sensitive information. However, traditional methods of generating random numbers rely on deterministic algorithms that, despite their complexity, are still subject to predictability and potential manipulation.

Quantum computers, on the other hand, harness the principles of quantum mechanics to generate random numbers. Quantum phenomena, such as the superposition and entanglement of quantum states, offer a fundamentally random and unpredictable foundation for generating numbers. This inherent randomness is a result of the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics, which introduces an element of true unpredictability into the process.

The ability to generate truly random numbers has significant implications for secure communications. By utilizing quantum computers to produce random numbers that cannot be faked or predicted, it becomes possible to establish highly secure encryption keys and protocols. These keys, generated using quantum randomness, would be virtually impossible to decipher or manipulate, providing an unprecedented level of security for sensitive data transmission.

Cryptocurrency networks, such as Ethereum, also stand to benefit from the use of quantum-generated random numbers. The security of blockchain systems relies on cryptographic algorithms that use random numbers for various purposes, including key generation and transaction verification. Quantum-generated random numbers could enhance the security of these networks, making them more resilient against attacks and ensuring the integrity of transactions.

In conclusion, quantum computers offer the potential to revolutionize the generation of random numbers for secure communications and cryptocurrency networks. The inherent randomness of quantum phenomena can provide truly unpredictable and unforgeable numbers, overcoming the limitations of traditional methods. This breakthrough represents the first practical application of quantum computers that would be impossible to achieve with classical machines. By leveraging quantum randomness, the security and privacy of sensitive information can be significantly enhanced, ushering in a new era of secure communications and cryptographic systems.

Source: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2364482-quantum-computers-may-finally-have-their-first-real-practical-use/